The new biology of the 1990s will integrate ecology and molecular biology in the service of agriculture. This new biology will surprise us. It will not present us with a cornucopia of genetically engineered chimeras. Nor will it present a plethora of chemically dependent cultivars, fragile in absence of expensive support systems. Instead, the new biology of the 1990s, grounded in ecological principles and deepened with new genetic insights, will make it possible to develop an agricultural production system that is more sustaining than it is today.