The Italian fishery supply chain is highly fragmented and lacking in organization; consequently most firms experience high operating costs, low sale prices and limited profitability. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the assessment of the effectiveness of policy intervention, in particular the creation of a collective label of origin, to promote local fishery products and increase their value. As a case study, we focus on the quality certification scheme named “PCAA - Prodotto Certificato dell’Alto Adriatico” (Certified Northern Adriatic Product), proposed by the Emilia-Romagna Regional Authority in order to promote the economic development of the regional supply chain and to facilitate private initiatives for coordination among supply chain participants. By means of a direct survey on key regional economic agents, we investigate organisation of firms, relationships between them and their strategic behaviour at each stage of the supply chain - namely fishing and aquaculture firms, wholesale markets, wholesalers, processors and retailers. As a result of the analysis, we provide an assessment of product flows along the supply chain for the main commercial species in Emilia-Romagna. We identify factors affecting the decision to participate in the PCAA certification scheme, and we discuss the expected effects of private agents’strategies on supply chain organization, as well as possible public intervention policies.