In light of the problems that characterize the modern agri-business in the definition of competitive strategies, based on internal, tangible and intangible resources, it becomes necessary to pay attention to business networks, or inter-company relations aimed at commercial transactions, exchange of information, shared norms and associations of resources. All this constitutes an asset for which the company needs to improve its competitive advantage. The structure of relations that allows access to these resources is the social capital, it is in the business network and it is able to create competitiveness and value for the companies. Starting from the data made available by the Census of Agriculture 2000 (ISTAT), it was decided to define and quantify specific indicators of Human Capital and Social Capital in agriculture, in order to obtain a regional characterization of Italian agriculture. These indicators were analyzed with multivariate techniques: principal component analysis (ACP) and cluster analysis. In detail, the ACP has made it possible to synthesize the original variables into a smaller number of new variables (principal components) that can be identified as variables of synthesis of the phenomenon under analysis and allowed us to develop a mapping of land areas (regional, provincial ), with similar characteristics, in relation to the principal components extracted. Then, using the cluster analysis it was possible to identify groups of regions according to different levels of human capital and social capital. Once realized the national mapping and, therefore, after having obtained a characterization of the Campania region, we proceeded with an empirical analysis of the functional relationships between social capital and human capital in agriculture in the wineries firms that have taken courses in the short chain in the inner part of Campania region. The main results come from the mapping and the identification of groups of Italian regions according to different levels of human capital and social capital. Once the national mapping was carried out we try to characterize the inner part of Campania with a detailed study of the organization of the short chain of wine and livestock companies, considering the structural, cognitive and relational components of social networking. The results have allowed us to identify the relationships between associations, cooperatives and human capital factors.