This paper analyzes the characteristics and the evolution of income distribution in the Brazilian agricultural sector considering two dimensions: the per capita household income and the income of occupied persons. The main data source is the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD). The per capita household income was divided into nine components (for Brazil and considering only the agricultural households) to evaluate their contributions to the decrease in inequality. In the second part, the paper analyzes the characteristics of occupied persons and the determining factors of their income, comparing the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. The estimated effects were analyzed over the period 1992-2009, adjusting one earnings equation for each year. In both cases (per capita household income and earnings of occupied persons), the agricultural sector showed markedly different behavior compared to the non-agricultural sector.