In October 1992, the Peace Accord was signed in Mozambique. Many positive changes have taken place since then. and the countryside in postwar Mozambique is in a state of intense transformation. Nevertheless, the government has been largely silent on the issue of land tenure reform, while some of the recommendations regarding land-policy reform that have been proposed are simplistic, uninformed, and fail to reflect the present political reality in Mozambique. This report shows the need to initiate a comprehensive discussion on land policy reform, natural resource management, and decentralized control over resources. The discussion must address fundamental questions about what types of land rights will exist or, more specifically, what types of property rights will be permitted; who will have the power to distribute land rights; and how and by whom land disputes will be settled. At the heart of these questions lie profound issues relating to the role and nature of the state and other political institutions, the relationships of these institutions with the citizens, and the form and nature of governance in Mozambique. In this report we will raise several concerns with regard to land that we hope will help policymakers in Mozambique define the parameters of this discussion.