Recently the funds allocated to combat the increase in dryland salinity have been increased substantially. A small proportion of these funds will be used to undertake economic analyses. As part of the NSW salinity strategy economic studies will be undertaken to determine the viability of management options. The complexity of the problem demands a sophisticated approach to quantifying the benefits of management. During the past 15 years a range of economic modelling studies have been completed in different areas of the state, and extensive effort has been undertaken to collect physical data to characterise the problem and the options for salinity management. It is appropriate, therefore, that the nature of the salinity problem, the issues that have been studied, and the methods applied by reviewed to explore the economic significance of the problem and gaps in current knowledge. This information may assist in determining future priorities for economic analysis type of methods that could be employed.