By establishing the database for and constructing the GTAP-E model of Reduction Potential and Control Policy for Chinese Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this paper simulates control policies and the reduction potential of Chinese Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The result is that with a 5% reduction China's GDP is reduced by 0.059%, social welfare is increased by 1.16 billion U.S. dollars, there is a 22.08% increase in the price of rice and a 2.9% increase in other crop prices. The price of cattle and sheep increases by 163.43%, the price of pigs and poultry by 0.57%, while other livestock prices fall by 0.98%. With a 5% reduction, the competitiveness of agricultural products in the international market will be reduced, and their export significantly reduced, but increased exports in other sectors result in China's net exports increasing by USD 4.55 billion. Tax levied on agricultural emissions will be USD 22.311 billion.