This report describes a planning framework to help guide on-farm efforts that seek to address agriculture's potential to adversely affect water quality while achieving farm business objectives. Principles and concepts from modern management thought and economics underlie the framework. This report introduces the Whole Farm Planning and Implementation Process of the New York City Watershed Agricultural Program. The process embodies the planning framework and guides on-farm planning and implementation efforts in the New York City Watershed. Economic and management aspects of the process receive emphasis.