The role of the agriculture sector in the economic development of Barbados has been substantially reduced as the country has continued on a path of economic diversification. Policy initiatives aimed towards this notable structural change in the economy, however, have subsequently resulted in a significant decline in output from the agriculture industry. However, recent global and national challenges have brought the need to rethink the relevance of the agriculture to the fore. This paper reviews some of the prevailing literature pertaining to the role of the agriculture on economic growth and development. In doing so, the potential scope of the industry for the overall economic growth and development of Barbados should be revealed. The paper also highlights two key agricultural issues that could potentially threaten economic development in Barbados. These are: the rising level of imports and rising food prices. Strategies that may be deemed beneficial to the local agricultural industry, if it is to remain a viable tool for national economic growth and development, will also be presented.