Problems currently observed in Polish agriculture have different origins. Some of them have an historical background, while others are related to systemic transformation and forthcoming accession to the European Union. Most of the problems are common for all the candidate countries and most of them are also observed in the developed economies. Identification of these problems is the main purpose of this article. Special attention is paid to natural, human and capital resources available in rural areas. Possible development paths are pointed out. The article also covers most of the opportunities that may help overcome rural development problems in Poland in the wake of forthcoming accession, and their limitations.