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Product labeling is an important dimension in food retailing. The evolution of Protected Geographic Indicators (PGI) and Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) in the European Union are used to identify products grown in a specific region or food products produced using a specific technology. The United States has followed a different path with the use of certifyca-tion/trademarks to identify either product origin or other differentiable characteristics. The divergence of the two approaches has led to trade disputes and WTO lawsuits. In this paper, the main attributes of the two approaches are identified and highlighted with a brief case study comparing Wisconsin Real Cheese and Parmigiano-Reggiano from Italy.


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