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When seasonal foreign farm workers with illegal resident status have left the country, farms experience difficulty in finding “motivated” equally efficient workers to fill in the void. This study’s survey and case study indicate that larger conventional farms usually opt for greater mechanization of their operations, with downsizing as another remedy. These farms also rely heavily on family members’ increased involvement in farm management. Enterprise budget analysis results suggest that when family farm labor inputs are exhausted, business losses could be realized, as yields are significantly reduced due to difficulty or delay in hiring domestic unskilled workers.


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