The “Two Leaps” put forward by Deng xiao-ping on agriculture are expounded in the paper. The first leap is from the people's commune to family land contract operation system. The weaknesses of people's commune and innovation of family land contract operation system are analyzed. It is pointed out that the family contact operation system is the expansion and development of collective economy. the second leap is to develop appropriate scale operation and collective economy. The shortages of family contract system are analyzed. It is put forward that realizing scale operation of agriculture is the necessary demand for production development and collective economy road is the inevitable way for realizing Chinese agriculture appropriate scale operation. “Two leaps” gives clears way of agriculture modernization: consolidating the thoughts of starting from the reality, insisting the guidance of the fundamental position of agriculture and further promoting agricultural development; persistently stabilizing and perfecting rural basic operation system and timely promote rural system innovation; stimulating the thought that science and technology is the prior productiveness and developing agricultural modernization in a better and faster way.