This paper has examined the trends in funding and impacts of CGIAR research with a focus on distribution of economic benefits and sustainability of natural resources. The evidence has clearly shown that the impacts in terms of agricultural growth, poverty reduction and environmental protection continue to be impressive. The success of varietal development programmes mainly stems from free exchange of plant genetic resources and partnerships with NARSs. However, the impact of natural resource and production system management research has been site-specific. Its spread has been restricted because of policy and institutional constraints on transfer of technology.