This paper expounds the connotation of main body of new socialist village construction, and the duplex main body characteristics of farmers and government. It points out that the main body of society should be the state holding public power, and the main body of nature or practice is the farmer who participates in production and living activities in rural areas and supports the existence of rural society. It also expounds the dominant position of duplex main body in new village construction, wherein the government is the main body which administers public power in the field of public power in new village construction, while the farmer is the main body who administers private rights in the field of non-public rights in new village construction. It generalizes and unravels the role of duplex main body of farmers and government in new village construction, and analyzes the relationship of role of duplex main body between government and farmers as follows: the government dominates over rural development, and the government, as main body, plays dominant role in the field of rural public power and construction of social environment, while the farmers are main participators and constructors, who play significant role; in construction of rural non-public power field, the farmers play the role of main body, and the government plays me role of guidance and service. In new village construction, me government and farmers play the role abreast, which is an important prerequisite and guarantee of constructing new village. In the process of governments fulfilling responsibility in new village construction, the outdated administrative concept exists, and in the process of administering and promoting new village construction, the farmers' quality is yet to be promoted. As for these problems, three countermeasures are put forward as follows: transform concept; transform style of work and transform and exert advantage of organization.