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This paper reviews the literature assessing the economic impacts of integrated pest management (IPM). Definitions of IPM are categorized as input- or outcome-oriented, and an outcome- oriented definition is recommended for public program assessment. The literature on economic impact assessment of IPM is divided according to focus on expected profit, profitability risk, environment, and health. Measuring diverse impacts on the environment and health poses a challenge, as does placing a value on those impacts. Evaluation of environment and health variables has been accomplished either by comparing individual attributes (multiple criteria approach) or else by constructing a weighted index (index approach), which may be measured in monetary or non- monetary terms. While partial budgeting represents an accepted measure of short-term expected profitability effects of IPM practices, the three other focal areas are much more costly and complicated to measure. For routine IPM project assessments, simple indicators of health and environmental impacts are needed that can be used to extrapolate upon valuation measures from prior, published studies.


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