Land property, in the post socialist countries, was rebuilt in the beginning of the 90’s. The process went in different way in Poland and in Hungary. The different initial conditions are resulted in different development in the agricultural economy of these two countries. Now the agriculture had different characteristics. Despite of the fact that there are different elements of ownership structures, the importance of farm land leases is increasing in both evaluated countries. Regarding to the competitiveness of agriculture, Poland showed a developing tendency after the accession, but Hungary suffers from serious problems. The aims and means of agricultural policy have gone through numerous changes throughout the last fifty years in the history of the European Union and its predecessors. Specialties deriving from the characteristics of agricultural production and its structure have come continuously in the foreground when shaping the aims and means of the policy. The sustainable usage of natural resources is of augmented importance, which is basically based on the limitation of land usage and the introduction of various incentives. The (Axis 2) measures serve this objective by enhancing the utilization and protection of arable land. The land use is affected by all the above.