Agricultural and forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a key feature of New Zealand’s emissions profile, and New Zealand is the only country, to date, to have indicated that agricultural and forestry emissions will be covered under their domestic climate policy – the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZETS). Forestry entered the NZETS in 2008 while agricultural emissions are expected to enter in 2015. Coupled with climate policy development is the increasing scrutiny of agricultural impacts on water in New Zealand. Given the multiple forms of environmental regulation facing the agricultural and forestry industries we explore, at the catchment level, the impacts of climate policy on the agricultural and forestry industries, including those on farm returns, GHG emissions, carbon sequestration, water quality and induced land use change. We use the recently developed New Zealand Forest and Agriculture Regional Model (NZ-FARM) to assess potential economic and environmental impacts of a climate policy that imposes a series of carbon prices on GHG emissions of land-based production in the Manawatu and Hurunui/Waiau catchments in New Zealand.