Both governmental and non-governmental organizations are engaged in the promotion of soil and water conservation practices in northern Ghana, but adoption is believed to be low. This study thus examines the determinants of conservation practices by farming households in the area. Data for the study was collected from 445 households located in 15 communities in northern Ghana. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate probit models were used to analyse the decision to adopt six conservation practices in the area. Results show the major determinants of adoption are plot and cropping characteristics such as location; and socio-economic and institutional variables such as number of contacts with extension officers, membership in farmer association and distance to major market. A major policy implication of the study is the strengthening of extension service in the area to significantly boost conservation adoption.