Due to high prime-age mortality in Uganda, a result of the HIV/AIDS scourge, the number of children who have lost at least one parent continues to rise in the country. The increase in numbers of orphans has challenged the overall socio-protection mechanisms and in particular threatens the country’s ability to achieve education development targets. Using the 2002/03 Uganda National Household Survey, this study investigates the impact of parental death—from HIV/AIDS as well as causes on the school enrollment and grade for age school progression. We find that HIV/AIDS orphans are not significantly less likely to continue schooling but are by far more likely to fall below their appropriate grade. On the other hand, we find that all orphans—regardless of cause of parental death are less likely to continue schooling and the gaps in enrollment decreases at higher levels of household welfare status—poor orphans are significantly less likely to continue schooling.