On the basis of connotation of urbanization, by using SPSS factor analysis and cluster analysis, we establish index system of urbanization development level and conduct quantitative analysis on development level of urbanization in 17 prefecture-level city of Anhui Province, in order to find out the differentiation pattern of regional space of urbanization development in Anhui Province based on these. The results show that Anhui’s difference of urbanization gradient is prominent. Classification of three clusters shows that the pattern of status quo of urbanization development in Anhui Province is “dual-nucleus” and “two-stretches”; classification of five clusters show that the pattern of status quo of urbanization development in Anhui Province is “one-core”, “one- strip” and “three-region”. From five aspects, namely natural geography, transportation location, resources distribution, economic development and administrative system, we analyze the reason and influencing factors of differentiation of urbanization development in the region. The results of three clusters and five clusters show that there is great possibility that “dual-nucleus” changes into “individual-nucleus”; “one-core” and “one-strip” may evolve into “one-group”. We should foster the urban agglomeration in central Anhui; perfect structure system in the perspective of integration and fostering; strengthen infrastructure construction and regional coordination system; elevate comprehensive competitiveness and guide holistic development of regional economy; promote industrialization process and promote development level of urbanization.