According to the 2010 China Statistical Yearbook, a total of 12 indicators in the aspects of residents’ production, consumption expenditure, and living conditions are selected in order to construct the indicator system of rural development level. Both factor analysis and cluster analysis methods are adopted to compare the current situations of rural development levels in 31 provinces and regions of China. Result of factor analysis shows that the 12 indicators can be classified into 4 factors, such as the income and expenditure factor, the agricultural scale and science and technology factor, the life quality factor, and the agricultural output factor. Moreover, factors affecting the rural development level of China are analyzed. Then, the 31 provinces and regions are divided into 4 categories according to the development levels in rural areas: the first category is Shanghai, Beijing and Zhejiang, which have the highest development level in rural areas; the second category includes Jiangsu, Shandong and Tianjin, which take the 4th to 6th places; the third category is Guangdong, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Fujian, Heilongjiang, Henan, Inner Mongolia, Anhui, Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi, which rank the 7th-18th; and the fourth category includes Sichuan, Hainan, Ningxia, Shanxi, Guangxi, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Chongqing, Tibet, Yunnan, Gansu, Qinghai and Guizhou, taking the 19th-31st places.