Agriculture surveys and literature establish that sorghum was of the most important food crops in Mozambique. A large number of farmers have been shifting production gradually from sorghum to maize production despite its susceptibility to drought. The general objective of this study is to identify the factors responsible for decline of sorghum production in Mozambique. Comparative analysis between sorghum and maize are done. Enterprise budgets and break even analysis for both sorghum and maize are presented and discussed. Supply functions for sorghum and maize from 1950 to 1985 are estimated. It is concluded that the major factors responsible for sorghum production decline are the lack of security in the country side, drought during the last ten years, lack of seed, poor varieties, and inappropriate marketing policies. The estimated supply equation for maize suggests raising of official maize prices to increase the output of maize.