Forest products play an important role in supporting rural livelihoods and food security in many developing countries. Pimentel et al. (1997) found that the integrity of forests is vital to world food security, mostly because of the dependence of the poor on forest resources. Studies of the role of forest products in household welfare in Zambia have found that such products are among the top sources of household income in some rural areas. This paper uses statistical analysis to examine the role of non-timber forest products NTFPs) in rural household welfare in Zambia, with two main objectives. First, using rural household survey data, we estimate the share of NTFP income to total household income with the aim of assessing the proportion and distribution of business activities related to NTFPs. Second, we estimate the determinants of rural household participation in the extraction and trade of NTFPs, with an interest in the characteristics of households that are more dependent on forest products for income.