This study has evaluated the superiority of resource conservation technologies (RCTs) over conventional methods of cultivation and has identified the factors influencing adoption of these technologies. It has provided succinct evidences from four states — Bihar, Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh — by comparing the adopters and non-adopters of RCTs in the rice-wheat cropping system of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. The study has highlighted superiority of RCTs over the conventional practices in terms of cost saving and efficient inputs-use. However, there is a need to internalize the RCTs in their totality by applying plans and strategies based on local dynamics. The study has suggested the need of policy formulations for dissemination and wider adoption of these technologies.