Using a sample of French crop farms during the 1999-2006 period, we test whether less technically efficient farmers are more likely to engage in organic farming in order to benefit from conversion subsidies. Despite some limitations in our data, we find no evidence of such selection effect. On the contrary, our estimation results indicate that more technically efficient farmers are more likely to convert to organic farming. This finding is found to be robust to the method of calculation of efficiency scores, either parametric or non-parametric. This study also confirms that farm’s characteristics (education, farm size and legal status) and farmers’ practices under conventional farming do impact the probability of conversion to OF.