Implications of increasing labour cost and development of herbicide resistance for profitable weed management in Philippine rice farming systems are investigated. The study employs RIMPhil (Resistance and Integrated Management in the Philippines), a bioeconomic simulation model developed to provide a comprehensive assessment of integrated weed management programmes for the control of annual barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in rice crops. Results indicate that herbicide application will become increasingly economically attractive, relative to manual weeding, as labour cost increases. This is important since urban migration in the Philippines continues to increase the scarcity of rural labour. Results also show that the onset of herbicide resistance results in substantial losses in farm profit. It may be worthwhile for farmers to take management actions to prevent or delay the onset of herbicide resistance, provided that these changes are effective and not too costly. The study highlights the complexity of decision making about integrated weed management on rice farms in the Philippines.