Adopting Stochastic Frontier Analysis and the multivariate regression model and employing 1995-2009 village-level data, the paper evaluates and interprets the effect of China’s agricultural policy reform on agricultural productivity change in the past fifteen years. The results show that China’s agricultural productivity has made significant growth in the past fifteen years under the influence of China’s agricultural policy reform. Furthermore, the effects of different agricultural policies on technical change and technical efficiency have significant differences with obvious periodic and regional features. The economic development pattern combining liberty with regulation has also led to frequent changes in China’s agricultural policies, which results in great fluctuation among different years. Meanwhile compared with technical change, technical efficiency has a smaller contribution to the improvement of China’s agricultural productivity, and effective agricultural subsidy policy is undoubtedly helpful to overcome this problem.