This 2011 report provides an economic overview of the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system. It is meant to be a multi-purpose reference document to provide: an introduction to the agriculture and agri-food system; a snapshot of structural changes that are occurring throughout the system in response to various factors; and background data and information to inform public discussions on challenges and opportunities facing the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system. Charts and tables with brief accompanying texts are used to summarize information and to provide base performance indicators. The 2011 report begins with a special feature that provides a description of young farmers in Canada including their numbers by farm size, province and farm type and how they are performing relative to other farming age groups. Young Farmer Enterprises (YFEs), at 8% of farms performed better than other farms. This is important, given that Canada's future capacity to produce food for the world, as well as contribute to a vibrant agriculture and agri-food system, will depend on the number and skill set of these young farmers today. The publication continues by reviewing each segment of the system, starting downstream with consumers to food distribution, and heading upstream to food and beverage processing, primary agriculture and input suppliers. It also contains a section that considers the natural resources available in Canada and the environmental impacts of agriculture. The report concludes with a review of government expenditures in support of agriculture, including international comparisons of government measures of support. It describes the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system as a modern, highly complex, integrated, internationally competitive and growing part of the Canadian economy. It is a resilient system, responding to the challenges and opportunities it faces by restructuring and adapting to changing consumer demands, advancing technology, North American integration and globalization.