In order to rank and cluster the economic status of rural residents in 31 provinces, cities and autonomous regions, the MATLAB software is used and the component analysis and the cluster analysis are conducted on the data reflecting the economic status of each area. The results show that the provinces or cities with high comprehensive , scores are Shanghai Municipality, Beijing Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Jiangsu Province, Tianjin Municipality, Guangdong Province, Fujian Province, Shandong Province and Liaoning Province according to priority; the provinces or autonomous regions with low comprehensive scores are Gansu Province, Guizhou Province , Tibet, Uygur autonomous region and Yunnan Province. The economic status of rural residents in the 31 provinces and autonomous regions are partly parallel with the comprehensive economic development. The improvement of the economic status of rural residents is helpful for the overall economic elevation. Therefore, the government should coordinate the economic development of urban and rural areas, industry and agricultural, developed region and undeveloped region, and coastal areas and central and western areas to maximize the social welfare of the whole nation.