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This study examined consumer willingness to pay for first- and second-generation genetically modified (GM) and organic foods and for non-GM foods, dependent on tolerance for GM content. Data from a survey of students were examined using a heteroskedastic two-limit Tobit model. Results showed consumers were willing to pay significantly more for organic and second-generation foods over first-generation GM foods, which suggests a niche market for second-generation GM foods may be possible. For non-GM foods, consumers were indifferent between a 100- and 99-percent threshold, but did not view 95-percent non-GM foods as more valuable than foods with unknown GM.


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