MoRST is evaluating the Environmental Research output class of the Public Good Science Fund to identify inter alia the impacts of Environmental RS&T spending. Three specific questions are: How effective has the funding on Environmental RS&T been? Is Environmental RS&T having a positive effect by delivering real benefits to New Zealand, particularly to the environment? What influences the link between research and tangible positive benefits? This paper reports how case studies applied to irrigated agriculture and mussel farming were used to provide partial answers to these three questions. The case studies proceed by noting the possible benefits that Environmental RS&T may have created, and then tracing the link back to specific research projects that contributed towards the benefits.