Under the direction of theory of human resources development, this thesis analyzes the impact of rural human resources development on cultivating new-type farmers. Firstly, it increases the input of rural basic education; secondly, it reinforces the vocational education and technology training; thirdly, it promotes the rural medical and public health services; fourthly, it quickens the rural labor transfer. The status quo of China’s rural human resources has been analyzed as follows: in terms of the quantity of rural human resources, the status quo is large and quick-developed base of rural human resources, high labor participatory rate, and constitution of low age; in terms of the quality of rural human resources, the status quo is the ubiquitous low quality of rural human resources, low technological level of rural human resources, and overall low physical quality of farmers; in terms of the structure of rural human resources, the status quo is the irrational industrial structure distribution and imbalanced regional structure distribution. The thesis also discusses the edification of theory of human resources development in cultivating new-type farmers. First, in terms of the control over quantity of rural human resources, it is to keep the stability of family planning policy, and expedite the transfer of rural surplus labor; second, in terms of promoting the quality of rural human resources, it is to bolster the development of reserve rural labor force resources, to construct the adult educational training system with Chinese characteristics, and to build rural primary health care system; third, in terms of adjusting the structure of rural human resources, it is to perfect rural human resources market, and adjust rural economical structure and talents structure.