The global economic crisis rescued Keynesianism. The current trends of the Brazilian economy, in what has been called "reprimarization", make timely reinvest structuralism in a position of greater prominence in the national economic debate. This is the main objective of this article. For this, we discuss a version of the macroeconomic model of "two-sectors," whereby it sought to show its relevance as a guide to thinking for a number of relevant socioeconomic issues, especially for third world countries. We seek also to demonstrate its consistency with certain empirical evidence and how it can be used as a basis for objective criticism of certain economic strategies that have been proposed for Brazil.