Based on the introduction of the status of animal vaccine industry in China, the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of animal vaccine industry is analyzed by SWOT. Among them, strength is mainly reflected in the broad market, and the favorable industrial policy and development environment. Weakness is the irrational structure of product, the nonstandard production inspection, and the irregular market. Opportunity is mainly reflected in improving government’s emphasis on animal security, expanding the scope of compulsory immunization, increasing the proportion of scale breeding, upgrading animal vaccine in China, speeding up industry consolidation and improving market concentration. Threat is manifested mainly in the poor market consciousness due to the long-term planned economy. And animal vaccine enterprises in China are at a relatively disadvantage position during the competition with international companies. Based on these, countermeasures to promote the development of animal vaccine enterprises in China are put forward from the aspects of both government and enterprise. On the one hand, government should improve the laws and regulations and promote the healthy development of vaccine industry, strengthen the manufacturers’ consciousness of quality and biological safety, and create a favorable environment for market competition. On the other hand, enterprises should adjust the product structure and strengthen research and innovation, improve the brand competitiveness, take the road of common development, enhance the management capacity of the enterprises, and promote customer service.