Taking Dalu Town, Bishan County, Chongqing as an example, general characteristics of peasants’ awareness of land property rights, as well as its differences at different ages, education degree and income level are discussed, according to the questionnaire survey on peasants’ awareness of land property rights in 14 villages. Four suggestions are put forward to improve the property right system, such as adhering to the reform direction of collective ownership, defining the owner of the collective, giving the complete ownership power to the owner, and ensuring the usufructuary right of land for peasants. Result shows that the understanding of land ownership is obscure and the tendency of land privatization is insignificant. Nearly 2/3 peasants think that rural land belongs to the collective. And the right of land disposition is unclear. For instance, the village committee or village collective usually disposes the land belonging to the community, which is an act in excess of authority. There are differences in the recognition of property among different groups. Peasant households with different ages, education degrees and income levels have unclear understandings of land ownership and the tendency of land privatization is insignificant. There are also certain differences in the recognition of land disposition right among groups. Peasant households with different ages, education degrees and income levels have unclear understandings of land disposition right and land disposition in excess of authority usually happens.