India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world accounting for about 25 per cent of global production, 27 per cent of global consumption and about 33 per cent of the world’s area under pulses. However, compared to cereals like wheat and paddy, the growth rate of area and production of pulses is negligible and there exists wide variability in their yield in different states of country. The study has explored the growth and dynamics of production and consumption of major pulses in different states of India and has made a comparative evaluation of key economic factors affecting their production. Pulses have exhibited a grim picture in their production performance both spatially and temporally. Area substitution coupled with the biased revenue terms of trade has shown preference of cereals and oilseeds over pulses. However, pulses have been found to be preferred over coarse grains. Further, a structural shift in production performance of pulses-producing states not only validates the lack of spatial and temporal stability in their production performance but also throws light on the hidden potential of minor states in pulses production for long-term sustainability of pulse production.