This paper summarises results of a expert interviews on the state and development of agriculture and rural areas in selected municiapalities in the Polish Carapatian mountains and in the German Alps. Compared to the German Alps, the Polish region has a number of particularities originating from the different history and the transformation process. The overall development in the Polish region is still lagging behind. The implementation of measures of the Common Agricultural Policy has not yet led to significant structural changes in the Carpathian region. The surveyed experts have identified a positive perspective for the development of agriculture. They expect tourism and agriculture to be the main sources of income. A complete disappearance of agriculture from mountainous regions will not be acceptable.