This paper analyzes the evolution of Swiss farm productivity during the implementation of environmental policy reforms. We employ a production model formulation with technology parameters defined as the functions of subsidies, as well as individual farm characteristics. Our estimates for two groups of farms – milk-producing and crop farms – show that introducing environmental regulations induced serious changes in the production technology and productivity of inputs, especially of land, labor and fertilizer. The overall effect of the subsidies on the production output has been found negative. At the same time, we find that farms do not use their resources optimally, which indicates some deficiencies in structural adjustments, primarily in the land and labor markets.