Many parts of Asia have achieved impressive gains in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction over the past half-century. By contrast, sustained agricultural development remains elusive in most of Africa. Policy makers are struggling to find the answers but there is no consensus about what the right mix of policies and public investments are. Can African policy makers learn from Asia’s green revolution? Conditions differ in many respects between Africa and Asia, as well as across countries within Africa, and the impacts of various investments and policies in Asia may not necessarily produce the same impacts in Africa. However, it is instructive to understand the mix of public investments and policies that helped many Asian countries achieve their smallholder-led green revolutions and to consider the potential lessons for Africa. We draw from two studies analyzing the returns to public expenditures and policies.