000061647 001__ 61647
000061647 005__ 20180122212759.0
000061647 037__ $$a320-2016-10485
000061647 041__ $$aen
000061647 084__ $$aF10
000061647 084__ $$aF13
000061647 245__ $$aDoes the WTO Increase Trade?  The Case of U.S. Cocoa Imports from WTO-Member Producing Countries
000061647 260__ $$c2010
000061647 269__ $$a2010
000061647 270__ $$moyeboah@ncat.edu$$pYeboah,   Osei-Agyeman
000061647 270__ $$mSaleem.Shaik@ndsu.edu$$pShaik,   Saleem
000061647 270__ $$mswozniak@ncat.edu$$pWozniak,   Shawn
000061647 270__ $$mallen@agecon.msstate.edu$$pAllen,   Albert J.
000061647 300__ $$a24
000061647 336__ $$aConference Paper/ Presentation
000061647 390__ $$aReplaced with revised version of paper 06/08/2010.
000061647 490__ $$aSelected Paper
000061647 490__ $$a11470
000061647 500__ $$aReplaced with revised version of paper 06/08/2010.
000061647 520__ $$aMarket access to export cocoa beans in many cocoa producing countries has improved greatly due to trade liberalization in the cocoa sector. This has been accomplished through a variety of policy instruments, primarily structural adjustment programs (SAPs). In reducing or eliminating the role of state-owned and operated marketing and exporting boards, cocoa-producing countries have opened themselves up to foreign-owned corporate agribusiness exporting companies and producers have received a higher share of a lower world price. Trade liberalization was also accomplished through free trade agreements (FTAs) in a few countries from which the U.S. imports fewer cocoa beans than those that underwent SAPs. These major exporters also became World Trade Organization members in addition to the SAPs and FTAs. 
This study analyzes U.S. cocoa bean imports from ten major cocoa-producing and exporting countries during the pre- and post-liberalization period of 1970-2007 using the gravity equation and the one-way fixed effects model. The objective was to measure trade creation for a WTO member that has undergone trade liberalization. Cocoa beans can serve as a proxy for any tropical commodity upon which a developing country heavily relies on for export revenue, such as is the case with Côte d’Ivoire and cocoa, for example. Our results find FTAs and WTOs do contribute to increased U.S. cocoa bean imports at the one percent and ten percent confidence levels, respectively.
000061647 542__ $$fLicense granted by Louise Letnes (lletnes@umn.edu) on 2010-05-05T01:25:35Z (GMT):

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000061647 650__ $$aInternational Relations/Trade
000061647 6531_ $$aGravity models
000061647 6531_ $$aExports
000061647 6531_ $$aMarket liberalization
000061647 6531_ $$aCocoa
000061647 6531_ $$aFixed Effects
000061647 6531_ $$aRandom Effects and Pooled Models
000061647 700__ $$aYeboah, Osei-Agyeman
000061647 700__ $$aShaik, Saleem
000061647 700__ $$aWozniak, Shawn J.
000061647 700__ $$aAllen, Albert J.
000061647 8564_ $$s282331$$uhttps://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/61647/files/CocoaAAEA2010-060810.pdf
000061647 887__ $$ahttp://purl.umn.edu/61647
000061647 909CO $$ooai:ageconsearch.umn.edu:61647$$pGLOBAL_SET
000061647 912__ $$nSubmitted by Louise Letnes (lletnes@umn.edu) on 2010-05-05T01:28:59Z
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  Previous issue date: 2010
000061647 982__ $$gAgricultural and Applied Economics Association>2010 Annual Meeting, July 25-27, 2010, Denver, Colorado
000061647 980__ $$a320