This paper aims to analyze the evolution of research and technological innovations that have taken in forest and pulp industrial areas, and emphasizes their possible impacts on the competitiveness of the Brazilian pulp industry. First, primary and secondary data are used to evaluate the main types of research and technological innovations and, in sequence, it is evaluated the importance of technological innovations that have contributed to the expansion of the Brazilian pulp industry in the pulp world market. Technological innovations in forest and industrial areas in the Brazilian pulp industry have brought significant increases of forest and industrial productivities, leading to reduction of pulp production cost. Consequently, profitability of the industry has been enlarged, causing its expansion. Finally, the paper analyzes future challenges for the Brazilian pulp industry in relation to research and technological innovations able to maintain its competitiveness internationally.