This brief summarizes detailed analysis of the determinants of household crop income in rural Mozambique from 2002 to 2005. Increased crop income is associated with increases in household land area, use of animal traction, crop diversification into tobacco or cotton, access to market price information, and access to extension agents (for tobacco/cotton growers). Decreases in crop income are associated with drought. Results demonstrate that there are both public and private investments that can enhance farmers’ ability to increase crop income and avoid losses. Priority investments include: development and dissemination of drought-resistant varieties for maize and cassava, conservation farming, animal traction, market information, access to high-value crops and small-scale irrigation.