In Sub-Saharan Africa food security will remain a major issue as cereals production is decreasing and their import prices are increasing. If food security involves food availability, accessibility, stability and the utilization of food in a nutritious manner by households, it is important to examine food production stability and consumption diversification as important determinants of food security. This paper examines these relationships in the UEMOA countries. The results indicate relatively stable food productions and weak consumption diversification. As a result the food security levels in the union are overall moderate or low. Thus agricultural policies should focus on existing and potential opportunities that enhance food production and consumption diversification and competitiveness in the Union.