This Policy Synthesis is a summary of a longer report that discusses the procurement of food aid within the country or region where it is needed. Referred to as local and regional procurement – LRP – this practice has become a major element in multilateral food aid response over the past decade1. The paper examines the relevance and the rationale for using LRP, reviews the efficiency of World Food Program (WFP) LRP activities in Africa relative to inkind food aid and to prices in the markets in which it occurs, and proposes a classification of risks in LRP. It then discusses a range of potential LRP modalities, and proposes a framework of guiding principles, information systems, and operational procedures for responsible and effective LRP. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the implications of this research for expansion of U.S. government (USG) authority to engage in LRP.