The current mundial economic crisis is contributing to show theoretical fails of neoliberalism. The time is ripe to rescue other visions theoretical. Among these are those which may be used to question the preaching for exploiting the agronomic potential of Brazil, as strategy of national insertion in world economy. This is the primary goal of this paper. Accordingly, was applied a two-sector macroeconomic model to identification and analysis of macroeconomic consequences of parametric changes in market agricultural goods. The results of exercises carried out by using the model showed misunderstandings contained in certain views of great presence in the brazilian economic debate.