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Buyers of grain use premiums and discounts to convey to suppliers the value of quality characteristics. Premiums and discounts are determined by supply and demand for those quality characteristics. This report, the eighth in a series, contains the results of a 1991 survey of pricing and marketing practices used by North Dakota country elevators for durum and hard red spring (HRS) wheat. Results for HRS wheat show that the protein level increased to the highs of 1988 and 1989 and that the premium for 16 percent protein and the discount for 12 percent protein decreased from the previous year. Discounts continued the downward trend of recent years.


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