During these last years, Algeria, like some other developing countries is undergoing important institutional changes. The structural adjustment plan (1990s), and the association agreement signed with the European Union (2005) are some of political tools that guide these profound changes that have considerable impacts on the strategic behavior of local enterprises. Beyond these mutations at national level, important policy changes are observed at international level, like the recent reform of the European sugar policy that constitutes a considerable shifter on the behavior of enterprises operating in the Algerian sugar refining industry. The present research aims to measure the weight of the institutional criteria on the strategic decision of sugar refining companies in Algeria, by the application of the SWOT analysis. The ultimate purpose is to contribute to the analysis of interactions that exist between institutional changes induced by the globalization process and the strategic choices of local enterprises in an emergent economy.