Although ECR has been one of most important subjects discussed by the grocery industry and a relevant topic mentioned by the academics, it is notable the difficulty to understand its implementation and operation. Based on these facts, this study aimed to discuss the concept of ECR by critically analyzing its implementation and bring some knowledge about this theme. The paper argues that while there is some evidence to suggest that ECR is an important tool, there is a need to more clearly explain how the ECR can really improve the operations between companies. The ECR literature is discussed, by following an empirical research conducted with industries, wholesalers and retailers of the grocery industry channel in Brazil. This research attempts to identify which strategies, processes and technologies of ECR have been applied by participating companies, the reasons for firms adopting the ECR, the difficulties confronted during the implementation process and how these firms felt about the diffusion of ECR strategies in Brazil. The study provides useful insights about the impact of the ECR initiative on firms that would like to maximize ECR implementation or begin the adoption of this practice.