Harvest timeliness is a continual problem in rotation of cotton and peanuts. Efficient allocation of land and labor resources during production of cotton and peanuts requires decisions be made on allocating resources throughout the growing season. Of particular concern is efficient allocation during planting and harvesting. Through economic analysis and linear programming optimization, planting and harvesting timeliness issues are addressed and compared with prevailing practices. Results for a representative farm indicate that cotton planting should increase during the early period of the planting season as compared with current practice, and most cotton should be harvested before peanut harvest begins.